AskDefine | Define alkaline

Dictionary Definition

alkaline adj : relating to or containing an alkali; having a pH greater than 7; "alkaline soils derived from chalk or limestone" [syn: alkalic] [ant: amphoteric, acidic]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Adjective

alkaline
  1. Of, or relating to an alkali.
  2. Having a pH greater than 7

Synonyms

Antonyms

Translations

having a pH greater than 7
  • Czech: zásaditý

Extensive Definition

In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: Al-Qaly القلي, القالي ) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal element. Alkalis are best known for being bases (compounds with pH greater than 7) that dissolve in water. The adjective alkaline is commonly used in English as a synonym for base, especially for soluble bases. This broad use of the term is likely to have come about because alkalis were the first bases known to obey the Arrhenius definition of a base and are still among the more common bases. Since Brønsted-Lowry acid-base theory, the term alkali in chemistry is normally restricted to those salts containing alkali and alkaline earth metal elements.

Common properties

Alkalines are all Arrhenius bases and share many properties with other chemicals in this group (Arrhenius bases form hydroxide ions when dissolved in water). Common properties of alkaline aqueous solutions include:
  • Moderately-concentrated solutions (over 10-3 M) have a pH of 10 or greater. This means that they will turn phenolphthalein from colorless to pink.
  • Concentrated solutions are caustic (causing chemical burns).
  • Alkaline solutions are slippery or soapy to the touch, due to the saponification of the fatty acids on the surface of the skin.
  • Alkalis are normally water soluble, although some like barium carbonate are only soluble when reacting with an acidic aqueous solution.
Alkalis are very reactive because they are very close to having a full valence electron shell and so will react with many nonmetals to gain those electrons
Alkalis are opposite of acids.

Confusion between base and alkali

The terms "base" and "alkali" are often used interchangeably, since most common bases are alkalis. It is common to speak of "measuring the alkalinity of soil" when what is actually meant is the measurement of the pH (base property). In a similar manner, bases that are not alkalis, such as ammonia, are sometimes erroneously referred to as alkaline.
Note that not all or even most salts formed by alkali metals are alkaline; this designation applies only to those salts that are basic.
While most electropositive metal oxides are basic, only the soluble alkali metal and alkaline earth metal oxides can be correctly called alkalis.
This definition of an alkali as a basic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal does appear to be the most common, based on dictionary definitions http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/alkalihttp://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=alkali, however conflicting definitions of the term alkali do exist. These include:

Salts

Most basic salts are alkali salts, of which common examples are:
  • sodium hydroxide (often called "caustic soda")
  • potassium hydroxide (commonly called "caustic potash")
  • lye (generic term, for either of the previous two, or even for a mixture)
  • calcium carbonate (sometimes called "free lime")
  • magnesium hydroxide is an example of an atypical alkali: it is a weak base (cannot be detected by phenolphthalein) and it has low solubility in water

Alkaline soil

Soil with a pH value higher than 7.3 is normally referred to as alkaline. This soil property can occur naturally, due to the presence of alkali salts. Although some plants do prefer slightly basic soil (including vegetables like cabbage and fodder like buffalograss), most plants prefer a mildly acidic soil (pH between 6.0 and 6.8), and alkaline soils can cause problems.

Lakes

In alkali lakes (a type of salt lake), evaporation concentrates the naturally-occurring alkali salts, often forming a crust of mildly-basic salt across a large area.
Examples of alkali lakes:

Etymology

The word "alkali" is derived from Arabic al qalīy = the calcined ashes, referring to the original source of alkaline substance. Ashes were used in conjunction with animal fat to produce soap, a process known as saponification.
alkaline in Arabic: قلوي
alkaline in German: Alkalien
alkaline in Esperanto: Alkalo
alkaline in Spanish: Álcali
alkaline in Estonian: Leelis
alkaline in French: Alcali
alkaline in Norwegian: Alkali
alkaline in Novial: Alkali
alkaline in Uzbek: Ishqor
alkaline in Polish: Alkalia
alkaline in Russian: Щёлочи
alkaline in Simple English: Alkali
alkaline in Thai: อัลคาไล
alkaline in Turkish: Alkali
alkaline in Chinese: 碱
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